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Chicago Manual of Style Guide (Chicago 17th Edition): Notes & Bibliography

General Information

The following section provides examples for the Notes & Bibliography format. The formatting for notes and references, regardless of source type, follow the same general format. However, some source types require additional information and formatting.

Specific Examples of Source Types

Web & Social Media
Other Sources


Sample paper in Chicago Style: 

Placement of Notes

Placement of the Note Number

  • At the end of the sentence
  • After the period
  • Number is formatted as superscript - e.g. ...same methods.1


Notes: Basic Structure

  • First line of a note is indented .5 inches (First-line indent)
  • Authors' names are listed first name last name (e.g. Samuel Adams)
  • Individual elements are separated by commas
  • Publication information is placed in parentheses


Bibliography: Basic Structure

  • Second line of a reference is indented .5 inches (Hanging indent)
  • First author's name is listed last name, first name  (e.g. Adams, Samuel)
  • Individual elements are separated by periods
  • Publication information is not in parentheses